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Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Know What Publication Style To Utilize

Decide which Journal(s) you shall need to submit to and download their manuscript composition guidelines from their websites. Determine which publication style is appropriate for the Journal and consistently follow that style through the entire manuscript. As an example, Soundings uses APA style (American Psychological Association). A few of the more widely used style manuals include:

Parts of the Paper

Practically all research papers are composed of seven separate sections including an abstract, introduction, hypothesis, materials & methods, results, discussion, and reference section.

An abstract is a concise paragraph that is single associated with the completed work whereby your reader can learn the rationale behind the research, general approach to the issue, pertinent results, and important conclusions. The abstract could be the text that is only a research paper to be written without needing paragraphs in order to separate major points. Summarize the research succinctly, with the past tense, complete sentences and correct grammar. Include the following elements:

  • Reason for the research – hypothesis, overall question, objective (try to define in one sentence)
  • Model organism or system and brief description of the experiment (try to define within one sentence)
  • Results, including specific quantitative data and link between statistical analyses
  • Important conclusions or questions that follow through the s that are experiment(


The objective of an introduction would be to acquaint your reader using the rationale behind the work. Provide a complete literary report on the info known about the topic (that both supports and contrasts your hypothesis) placing your work in a context that is theoretical enables your reader to know and appreciate your objectives. Describe the importance (significance) for the study and exactly why it offers value. Defend the model and offer a rationale. Explain why you selected this particular organism or system? What are its advantages/disadvantages? You could comment on its suitability from a point that is theoretical of along with indicate practical reasons for using it.

Hypothesis (es)

A hypothesis is an educated guess about how precisely things work. Your hypothesis should always be constructed in a way that helps you answr fully your original research question and be stated in a way that can be simply measured. Your quest should have addressed whether your hypothesis is false or true. Describe the reasoning and references that led you to make each hypothesis.

Materials and Methods

Materials and methods might be reported under separate subheadings within this section or can be incorporated together. The aim is to document all specialized materials and general procedures in order that another individual could use some or most of the methods an additional study or judge the merit that is scientific of work. It is not to be one step by step description of all you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. Omit all information that is explanatory background, saving this when it comes to discussion. Also avoid information that is including is irrelevant to an authorized, such as what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged within the data. Typically, the third person passive voice is employed to create this section.

The objective of a results section would be to provide and illustrate your findings using figures and tables which will portray the results most effectively. This section ought to be a completely objective report of this results and any interpretation of what these results indicate ought to be reserved when it comes to when it comes to discussion section. Describe all of your results, pointing the reader to observations which can be most relevant, however, the text should complement figures and/or tables, not repeat the information that is same. If applicable, describe results of control experiments and can include observations that aren’t presented in a figure that is formal table. Never include raw data or calculations that are intermediate a research paper. Try not to present the data that are same than once. Utilize the past tense whenever you relate to your outcomes and place everything in a logical order.


The discussion section is employed to deliver an interpretation of one’s results and support your conclusions using evidence from your experiment and, if appropriate, from other published literature. While you describe your computer data be sure to identify mechanisms which will account fully for the results. In the event the results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. Then describe the theory that the evidence supported if your results agree. It really is never appropriate to simply suggest that the information agreed with expectations, and allow it to drop. Decide if the experimental design was properly controlled an if it adequately addressed the hypothesis(es). Describe if each hypothesis was supported, rejected, or if a choice could not be fashioned with confidence essay outline writer, and expand upon the mechanisms that deemed it so. Compare and contrast literature review findings to your research findings and try to offer alternative explanations if possible. One experiment will not answer an overall question, so keeping the picture as a whole in mind, identify what questions remain and suggest areas that require further study.

Literature Cited

List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. Only use primary literature (original research articles authored by the original investigators).

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